# Python Style Guide

Follow the Python Style Guide (PSG) as formulated in PEP-8

Use pylint to lint code. You can also use yapf which is an auto-formatting tool.

# Python 2/3

As a rule, all Python code should be written to support Python 3. No code should be written to be compatible with Python 2 only.

Python porting guide has great, practical advice on writing code for Python 2 and 3, if strictly necessary. Some choose to use helper libraries like six. In any case, it is strongly recommend to follow the advice from the Python porting guide and add the following snippet to all Python modules to ensure API consistency for strings, division, imports, and the print function.


# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

from __future__ import division
from __future__ import print_function
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import unicode_literals

Follow the Python Style Guide (PSG) as formulated in PEP-8

# Indentation

  • Do not use tab for indentation
  • Give 4 spaces for every indent
  • Strictly enforce a 79 character line limit

Correct Indentation: πŸ‘

    Good Example  # Aligned with opening delimiter
       foo = long_function_name(var_one, var_two,
                                var_three, var_four)
       meal = (spam,
               beans)

       # Aligned with opening delimiter in a dictionary
       foo = {
           long_dictionary_key: value1 +
                                value2,
           ...
       }

       # 4-space hanging indent; nothing on first line
       foo = long_function_name(
           var_one, var_two, var_three,
           var_four)
       meal = (
           spam,
           beans)

       # 4-space hanging indent in a dictionary
       foo = {
           long_dictionary_key:
               long_dictionary_value,
           ...
       }

Incorrect indentation: πŸ‘Ž

    Bad Example   # Not aligned with opening delimiter
       foo = long_function_name(var_one, var_two,var_three,
       var_four)
       meal = (spam,
       beans)

       # Not aligned with opening delimiter in a dictionary
       foo = {long_dictionary_key: value1 +
                                value2,
           ...
       }

       # No space hanging indent; nothing on first line
       foo = long_function_name(
        var_one, var_two, var_three,
        var_four)
       meal = (
           spam,
           beans)

       # No space hanging indent in a dictionary
       foo = {
           long_dictionary_key:
            long_dictionary_value,
           ...
       }

# Lint

Run pylint over your code.

Pylint can be helpful for debugging. It catches errors that are easy-to-miss errors like typos, etc.

# Naming Conventions

Use common language conventions for naming functions, classes and variables.

  • Variables, functions and methods should be lower_case_with_underscores
this_is_a_good_example
Not-A-Good-Naming-Choice
  • Classes are TitleCase
GoodExample
notAGoodexample

And other preferences:

  • Use ’ and not " as the quote character by default
  • When writing a method, consider if it is really a method (needs self) or if it would be better as a utility function
  • When writing a @classmethod, consider if it really needs the class (needs cls) or it would be better as a utility function or factory class

# Frameworks

We prefer the following frameworks and libraries. If you want to use an alternative to one of these please flag this before starting any work.

  • Flask
  • Click

# Submitting code

  • Code should be submitted via pull requests, which another person should merge.
  • Use continuous deployment.
    • Apps should be deployed from a continuous integration service when a successful build is made on the branch used for production.
    • Packages should be published to the respective package registry when a tag is pushed.
    • Write small, reusable libraries where possible. There are many opportunities for reuse across our different products.

# Docstrings

Use Sphinx-style or Google-style documentation conventions.

# User documentation

Prefer to make really good README.md files, rather than implementing a full documentation framework.

# Testing

# tox and py.test

Use tox with py.test to test code.